The history of the development of robotics
In the world and in Ukraine
The list of applications of robotics is endless, as is its value. Currently, robotics in Ukraine is developing rapidly, production processes at industrial enterprises are reduced to automation. After all, the development of robotics in Ukraine and technologies is not only a guarantor of safety and profitability, but also a basic criterion of efficiency in workplaces, in the educational program of modern youth, and on the battlefield. Tough, strong, multi-functional and humanoid robots prepare a recipe from a programmed library, count, package and deliver medicine, perform search and rescue, teach, train, entertain, protect and assist on the battlefield.
History of robotics development
Robotics appeared thanks to science fiction writer Isaac Asimov in 1942. The word itself has Slavic roots and comes from Robota (work). But the first ideas of primitive robotics come from ancient times. For example, the creation of the first statues of gods with moving parts of the body (hands, head) comes from ancient Egypt, Babylon, and China.
Closer to the Middle Ages, more complex mechanisms began to appear, such as various kinds of automata and clocks with multiple figures. Then, from 11 to 17 centuries, the so-called androids – multifunctional humanoid toys – were actively created. Finally, modern robotics emerged in the second half of the XX century.
The need for the production of automatic machines that would be more enduring than people – grew more and more over time. Modern predecessors of robots were manipulators with manual and automated control. The first industrial robots had software control and were called 1st generation robots. Robots with adaptive control were already endowed with “feelings” and had sensor systems, mainly technical vision systems. It was already the 2nd generation of robots. At the same time, robots are beginning to penetrate more and more widely into other sectors of the economy, including mining, metallurgy, construction, transport, light and food industries, agriculture, medicine, the service sector, ocean and space exploration, and military affairs. In recent years, the pace of development has been accelerating. The share of robots employed outside the industry, particularly in household chores, is growing.
The development of Ukrainian robotics dates back to the 1950s and 1990s. It was at this time that new enterprises appeared that were engaged in production automation and robotics. The middle of the 60s of the XX century. in Ukraine fell on active AI research, and concentrated on the creation of the first computing machines, “Ukrainian robots”. Then appeared the first universal general-purpose control car “Dnipro”. With a production run of 500 machines, this machine had many uses, both in industry, the military and scientific facilities. In parallel with this, Ukrainian scientists developed a control system for a manipulative robot: “Eye – hand”, where remote control tasks were performed by a mobile robot that could recognize objects and adjust its “own forces” according to the volume and weight of objects.
The Ukrainian robotics market is still not standing still, but Japan is the unchanging leader in the field of robotics. The USA, Italy, France, and Sweden are in second and third place among robot manufacturers.
Robotics in production, services and everyday life
The variety of needs and tasks is growing in direct proportion to the development of the social component. At the same time, the variation of robot classifications is increasing, and the details of modern robots are becoming more sophisticated and equated to the space level.
Currently, the field of robotics is divided into consumer, production, and educational fields. Consumer demand for various cleaning robots or drones that help conduct aerial surveys for reconnaissance during hostilities is unabated. The educational field of robotics in Ukraine is also growing rapidly. More and more often, educational projects are appearing, where you learn to design and program robots with the help of special sets of robotics. With the help of robots, Nova Poshta, Fozzy Group, and medical institutions throughout Ukraine perform their work processes at a first-class level.
Let’s take a look at what robots are like: some are sharpened for assembly work and cannot be easily adapted for other applications. In this case, it is called a folding robot. Works that perform seam welding and have welding equipment along with other material handling facilities such as rotary tables and others as a single unit. Such an integrated robotic system is called a “welding robot”. And those jobs that manipulate huge loads are called “heavy duty jobs”.
Current and possible fields of application of robots include:
- Military works
- Agricultural works
- Medical works
An example of reliable automated equipment is the manufacturing company Caterpillar. Their remote-controlled machines and fully autonomous heavy-duty machines with the function of remote lifting cranes are an example of first-class robotics for agricultural work.
Among the fully, 100 percent automated plants is IBM’s keyboard manufacturing facility in Texas.
Modern models of robots are an inseparable component in the field of medicine. Yes, HOSPI robots are used as couriers in hospitals (hospital robots). Other hospital tasks are performed by receptionists, guides and porters—assistants.
The achievements of science have not bypassed the sphere of service. Robots can serve as waiters and cooks, as well as at home. “Boris” is a robot that loads dishes into the dishwasher.
Increasingly, you can see sporting events where the strength and intelligence of robots are demonstrated, fighting in an arena where the main goal is to disable the opponent.
Robots have become a common teaching aid in some secondary and higher education institutions, as well as in numerous youth summer camps, to increase interest in programming, artificial intelligence and robotics among students.
In some universities around the world, the first year of study includes computer-based courses in robot programming, in addition to traditional software engineering, based on coursework.
In general, most robots perform important tasks, such as cleaning contaminated areas, from toxic waste or nuclear products, performing minimally invasive surgery, and caring for the elderly.
Robots have been developing for years and go side by side with people, actively becoming an everyday part of life.
And what is the state of robotics in Ukraine, what affects it now and what factors will affect its development in the future?
Development of robotics in Ukraine
During the period of independence, Ukraine showed the world hundreds of thousands of innovative ideas that are in demand both in the Ukrainian market and outside the country.
The authors of a digital clothing store with collections of the most famous brands, an application that saves patients with bipolar disorder, and a platform with millions of investments are Ukrainians! The main obstacle to the development of robotics in Ukraine is the lack of funds, which startups are successfully overcoming.
Heroes of Ukrainian robotics
- Robo house/ Дім роботів – is an international laboratory of robotics, electronics and programming. For 6 years, he has been opening the world of robotics for children and adults. Also develops robots and prototypes of IoT solutions.
- Esper Bionics is the author of a robotic hand with intuitive control technology. People who have lost limbs have the opportunity to improve the capabilities of their physical body.
- Restream is a service for simultaneous streaming to various platforms, including Facebook, Twitch, and YouTube.
- FuelWell is the author of a device that allows you to reduce the number of harmful emissions from a car.
- DressX – the authors of the service with digital clothes for confidence in virtual life.
- Cardiomo is the creators of a portable device, app, and software for real-time heart health monitoring.
- Re-leaf Paper – is engaged in processing fallen leaves on an industrial scale and creating packages that are already used by Weleda and L’oreal, and the team plans to collaborate with Louis Vuitton, Zara, Gucci.
- Bicovery are the authors of an app for people with bipolar disorder that is programmed to warn of potential manic or depressive episodes.
According to Deloitte surveys, 70% of respondents from Ukraine consider the trend towards the development of robotics important, and 28% use AI and robotics to reduce routine work and avoid duplication of processes.
Today’s realities lead Ukrainian robotics to the mass development of military robotic weapons and applications.
The emergence of new educational institutions that will teach children robotics is an important decision for the future of the state. After all, after the victory of Ukraine on the battlefield, a question will arise regarding the labor force that suffered losses as a result of the war, migration processes, and destroyed production facilities and infrastructure. New robotic systems with artificial intelligence are likely to replace outdated production facilities.